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INFORMATION ABOUT TURKEY

 
Situated between Europe and Asia, linking Western and Eastern cultures.

The land borders of Turkey are 2,573 kilometres in total, and coastlines (including islands) are another 8,333 kilometres, Turkey has two European and six Asian countries for neighbours along its land borders. The land border to the northeast with the commonwealth of Independent States is 610 kilometres long; that with Iran, 454 kilometres long, and that with Iraq 331 kilometres long. In the south is the 877 kilometre-long border with Syria.Turkey's borders on the European continent consist of a 212-kilometre frontier with Greece and a 269-kilometre border with Bulgaria.

The Turkish peninsula is surrounded by four seas: Mediterranean (south), Aegean (west), Sea of Marmara (between Europe and Asia) and the Black Sea (north).

 

The actual area of Turkey inclusive of its lakes, is 814,578 square kilometres, of which 790,200 are in Asia and 24,378 are located in Europe.

 

Topography
The high plateau landscape is bordered by the Black Sea Mountain chain (the Pontic Alps) to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Turkey’s diverse terrain includes mountains, steppe lands, lake lands, rivers, coastal plains, and forests and rich agricultural valleys

 

Climate

Turkey's climate is surprisingly varied. The Aegean and Mediterranean regions weather are moderate while central Anatolia and Cappadocia are cold and it may snow.Turkey's summer are usually long, warm and rainless; winters in general bring some snow and cold rain. There is plentiful rainfall for orchards,grain fields and reservoirs, and bounteous bright sun for vineyards and beach goers.

 
Air and Water Temperatures for Major Regions (°C)
REGION
MONTHS
 
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Antalya Air
10
11
13
16
20
25
28
28
25
20
15
13
  Water
18
18
18
18
21
24
27
28
27
25
22
19
Izmir Air
9
10
11
16
20
25
28
27
23
18
15
10
  Water
11
11
12
15
20
24
26
26
24
21
17
13
Istanbul Air
5
6
7
12
16
21
23
23
20
16
12
8
  Water
9
7
8
11
15
20
23
23
21
17
14
11
Ankara Air
0
1
5
11
16
20
23
23
18
13
8
2

 

 

Government
The Turkish Republic is based on secular democratic, pluralist and parliamentary system, where law and social justice protect human rights. The National Assembly is elected by popular vote and the nation is governed by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Turkey is a founding member of OECD, the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organisation, a member of NATO, the European Council and the European Parliament, and an associate member of the European Community.

 

Economy
Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of Turkey, which has signed a Customs Union Agreement with the European Union. Turkey is self-sufficient in food production and produces enough surplus for export as well. Leading industries include the processing of agricultural products, metallurgy, textiles and the manufacturing of automobiles and agricultural machinery. With the increased development of summer and winter resorts, Turkey is becoming a major European tourist destination. The tourism industry earns an average annual income of more than $11 billion U.S. for the Turkish economy, and this amount is increasing yearly.

 

Religion
The population is 99% Moslem. Turkey is a secular state and recognizes freedom of worship. It is the only country in the world in which mosques, churches and synagogues have coexisted peacefully for centuries.

 

History
Turkey, known as ‘‘the cradle of civilization’’, hosted the first human settlement on its soil, which has been dated as 12,000 years old. Turkey is also the home of ancient cultures, including the Hattis, Hittites, Phrygians, Urartians, Lycians, Lydians, Ionians, Persians, Macedonians, Babylions, Assyrian, Romans, Byzantine's, Seljuks and Ottomans. Following the decline of Ottoman Empire, the modern Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal, known as Ataturk, an army general and World War I hero. Ataturk is revered in Turkey and is cited as one if the world’s greatest statesmen.

 

Useful Information
Entry Requirements : Provided that they have a valid passport, citizens of most countries do not need a visa or can be issued a visa at entry points.
Time Zone : Turkey is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and 7 hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time.

Currency : The unit of currency is the Turkish Lira which is available in notes and coins.The exchange rate is determined daily; Foreign currency can be exchanged in private or state banks and Exchange offices in Ýstanbul Traveller cheques can be cashed in most banks. All major Credit cards (American Express, VISA, Master card / Euro card, Diners' Club ) and foreign currences are accepted by many Hotels, shops , restaurants . Moreover there is no limit to the amount of foreign currency that travelers can bring cash.

Language : It is Turkish which is written with the Latin alphabet. English, French and German are spoken in hotels, major restaurants and many shops.

Working hours : Offices banks and shopping centers are generally open from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm from Monday to Friday, with a break between 12:00 to 1:30 p.m.

Communication : Public telephones operate with tokens or cards, sold at post offices or some booths. Through some of the public phones, there is access to AT&T and some other telecommunication networks; please check with your operator for the latest information. Fax messages can be sent from major post offices, or from hotels.

Public Holidays


Jan 1 New Year
Apr 23 National Sovereignty and Children's Day
May 19 Youth and Sport's Day
Aug 30 Victory Day
Oct 29 Republic Day


Apart from these, there are two religious holidays whose dates change every year according to the lunar calendar.

Museums and Archaeological Sites : Modest entrance fees vary, and additional fees are charged for permission to take photographs. Most museums are open every day between 9:30 am and 6:30 pm, except Mondays, Palaces are also closed on Mondays, except for Topkapi Palace which is closed on Tuesdays.